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With quite 65 million users—consumers, scientists, animators, developers, system administrators, and more—OS X is the most generally used UNIX® desktop operating system. Additionally, OS X is that the only UNIX environment that natively runs Microsoft Office, Adobe Photoshop, and thousands of other consumer applications—all side by side with traditional command-line UNIX applications.

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Tight integration with hardware—from the sleek MacBook Air to the powerful Mac Pro—makes OS X the platform of choice for an emerging generation of power users.

This document explores the powerful industry standards and breakthrough innovations within the core technologies that power Apple’s industry-leading user experiences. We walk you through the whole software stack, from firmware and kernel to iCloud and developer tools, to assist you to understand the various things OS X does for you each time you employ your Mac.

Overview of Mac OS X Mountain Lion 10.8 ISO & DMG Image

Kernel

The OS X kernel is predicated on FreeBSD and Mach 3.0 and features an extensible architecture supported well-defined kernel programming interfaces (KPIs). OS X was the primary OS to ship as one install that would boot into either a 32-bit or 64-bit kernel, either of which could run 32-bit and 64-bit applications at the full native performance. Starting with a cougar, OS X exclusively uses a 64-bit kernel, but it continues to run both 32-bit and 64-bit applications.

To do this, I/O Kit provides the following:

  • An object-oriented framework implementing common behavior shared among all

drivers and kinds (families) of drivers

  • Many families of drivers for developers to create upon
  • Threading, communication, and data-management primitives for handling issues

related to multiprocessing, task control, and I/O-transfers

  • A strong, efficient match-and-load mechanism that scales well to all or any bus types
  • The I/O Registry, a database that tracks instantiated objects (such as driver instances)

and provides information about them

  • The I/O Catalog, a database of all I/O Kit classes available on a system
  • A group of device interfaces—a plug-in mechanism that permits applications and other

software outside the kernel to speak with drivers

  • Excellent overall performance
  • Support for arbitrarily complex layering of client and provider objects

Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR)

Many malware exploits believe fixed locations for well-known system functions. To mitigate that risk, cougar randomly relocates the kernel, kexts, and system frameworks at system boot. This protection is out there for both 32-bit and 64-bit processes.

Recovery partitions

OS X Lion introduced a replacement Recovery HD partition that has the tools you would like to do the following

  • Reinstall OS X
  • Repair a tough drive
  • Restore from a machine backup
  • Launch Safari to look at the documentation and search the web
  • Create Recovery HD partition on external drives.

Core Storage

Layered between the whole-disk partition scheme and therefore the filing system used for a specific partition may be a new logical volume format referred to as Core Storage, introduced in OS X Lion. Especially, Core Storage allows in-place transformations like backgrounding the full-disk encryption used by Filevault 2.

File systems

Partitions are typically formatted using some variant of the HFS Plus filing system, which provides fast Btree-based lookups, robust aliases, and rich metadata—including fine-grained access controls and extended attributes. Since OS X 10.3 Panther, every Mac has used a journaled version of HFS Plus (HFSJ) to enhance data reliability. Since OS X 10.6 ounce, HFS Plus has automatically compressed files.

You can also prefer to format partitions with HFSX, a case-sensitive variant of HFS Plus intended for compatibility with UNIX software. For interoperability with Windows, systems disks could also be formatted with FAT32 or exFAT.

Launched

The kernel replaces the complex web of init, Cron, Xinetd, and /etc/RC wont to launch and manage processes on traditional UNIX systems. Launched first appeared in OS X 10.4 Tiger. it’s available as open-source under the Apache license.

File-based configuration

Each job managed by launched has its own configuration to enter a typical launched. list(5) file format, which specifies the working directory, environment variables, timeout, Bonjour registration, etc. These lists are often installed independently in the standard OS X library domains (for example, /Network/Library,/System/Library/Library, or ~/Library), avoiding the necessity to edit system-wide configuration scripts. Jobs and lists also can be manually managed by the launch command-line tool.

Smart scheduling

Like traditional UNIX Cron jobs, launched jobs are often scheduled for specific calendar dates with the StartCalendarInterval key, also as at generic intervals via the StartInterval key. If the pc sleeps through multiple intervals, those events are going to coalesce into a single trigger.

Also Read:-Mac OS X Leopard 10.5 ISO/DMG Download Free

System Requirements of the Mac OS X Mountain Lion

  • Minimum RAM requirement of 2GB.
  • Free Hard Disk Drive of 8GB.
  • Intel Multi-Core processor.

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You can download the Microsoft Office 2000 Professional full version for Windows by accessing the link below. Also, make sure that you have enough back up before you proceed with the same. There are a lot of duplicate ISO images on the market and it is best to download the same from a trusted source.

So, you’ve decided to download an older version of Mac OS X. There are many reasons that could point you to this radical decision. To begin with, some of your apps may not be working properly (or simply crash) on newer operating systems. Also, you may have noticed your Mac’s performance went down right after the last update. Finally, if you want to run a parallel copy of Mac OS X on a virtual machine, you too will need a working installation file of an older Mac OS X. Further down we’ll explain where to get one and what problems you may face down the road.

A list of all Mac OS X versions

We’ll be repeatedly referring to these Apple OS versions below, so it’s good to know the basic macOS timeline.

Cheetah 10.0Puma 10.1Jaguar 10.2
Panther 10.3Tiger 10.4Leopard 10.5
Snow Leopard 10.6Lion 10.7Mountain Lion 10.8
Mavericks 10.9Yosemite 10.10El Capitan 10.11
Sierra 10.12High Sierra 10.13Mojave 10.14
Catalina 10.15

STEP 1. Prepare your Mac for installation

Given your Mac isn’t new and is filled with data, you will probably need enough free space on your Mac. This includes not just space for the OS itself but also space for other applications and your user data. One more argument is that the free space on your disk translates into virtual memory so your apps have “fuel” to operate on. The chart below tells you how much free space is needed.

Note, that it is recommended that you install OS on a clean drive. Next, you will need enough disk space available, for example, to create Recovery Partition. Here are some ideas to free up space on your drive:

  • Uninstall large unused apps
  • Empty Trash Bin and Downloads
  • Locate the biggest files on your computer:

Go to Finder > All My Files > Arrange by size
Then you can move your space hoggers onto an external drive or a cloud storage.
If you aren’t comfortable with cleaning the Mac manually, there are some nice automatic “room cleaners”. Our favorite is CleanMyMac as it’s most simple to use of all. It deletes system junk, old broken apps, and the rest of hidden junk on your drive.

Download CleanMyMac for OS 10.4 - 10.8 (free version)

Download CleanMyMac for OS 10.9 (free version)

Download CleanMyMac for OS 10.10 - 10.14 (free version)

STEP 2. Get a copy of Mac OS X download

Normally, it is assumed that updating OS is a one-way road. That’s why going back to a past Apple OS version is problematic. The main challenge is to download the OS installation file itself, because your Mac may already be running a newer version. If you succeed in downloading the OS installation, your next step is to create a bootable USB or DVD and then reinstall the OS on your computer.

How to download older Mac OS X versions via the App Store


If you once had purchased an old version of Mac OS X from the App Store, open it and go to the Purchased tab. There you’ll find all the installers you can download. However, it doesn’t always work that way. The purchased section lists only those operating systems that you had downloaded in the past. But here is the path to check it:

  1. Click the App Store icon.
  2. Click Purchases in the top menu.
  3. Scroll down to find the preferred OS X version.
  4. Click Download.

This method allows you to download Mavericks and Yosemite by logging with your Apple ID — only if you previously downloaded them from the Mac App Store.

Without App Store: Download Mac OS version as Apple Developer

If you are signed with an Apple Developer account, you can get access to products that are no longer listed on the App Store. If you desperately need a lower OS X version build, consider creating a new Developer account among other options. The membership cost is $99/year and provides a bunch of perks unavailable to ordinary users.

Nevertheless, keep in mind that if you visit developer.apple.com/downloads, you can only find 10.3-10.6 OS X operating systems there. Newer versions are not available because starting Mac OS X Snow Leopard 10.7, the App Store has become the only source of updating Apple OS versions.

Purchase an older version of Mac operating system

You can purchase a boxed or email version of past Mac OS X directly from Apple. Both will cost you around $20. For the reason of being rather antiquated, Snow Leopard and earlier Apple versions can only be installed from DVD.

Buy a boxed edition of Snow Leopard 10.6
Get an email copy of Lion 10.7
Get an email copy of Mountain Lion 10.8

Mac

The email edition comes with a special download code you can use for the Mac App Store. Note, that to install the Lion or Mountain Lion, your Mac needs to be running Snow Leopard so you can install the newer OS on top of it.

How to get macOS El Capitan download

If you are wondering if you can run El Capitan on an older Mac, rejoice as it’s possible too. But before your Mac can run El Capitan it has to be updated to OS X 10.6.8. So, here are main steps you should take:

1. Install Snow Leopard from install DVD.
2. Update to 10.6.8 using Software Update.
3. Download El Capitan here.

“I can’t download an old version of Mac OS X”

If you have a newer Mac, there is no physical option to install Mac OS versions older than your current Mac model. For instance, if your MacBook was released in 2014, don’t expect it to run any OS released prior of that time, because older Apple OS versions simply do not include hardware drivers for your Mac.

But as it often happens, workarounds are possible. There is still a chance to download the installation file if you have an access to a Mac (or virtual machine) running that operating system. For example, to get an installer for Lion, you may ask a friend who has Lion-operated Mac or, once again, set up a virtual machine running Lion. Then you will need to prepare an external drive to download the installation file using OS X Utilities.

After you’ve completed the download, the installer should launch automatically, but you can click Cancel and copy the file you need. Below is the detailed instruction how to do it.

STEP 3. Install older OS X onto an external drive

The following method allows you to download Mac OS X Lion, Mountain Lion, and Mavericks.

  1. Start your Mac holding down Command + R.
  2. Prepare a clean external drive (at least 10 GB of storage).
  3. Within OS X Utilities, choose Reinstall OS X.
  4. Select external drive as a source.
  5. Enter your Apple ID.

Now the OS should start downloading automatically onto the external drive. After the download is complete, your Mac will prompt you to do a restart, but at this point, you should completely shut it down. Now that the installation file is “captured” onto your external drive, you can reinstall the OS, this time running the file on your Mac.

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  1. Boot your Mac from your standard drive.
  2. Connect the external drive.
  3. Go to external drive > OS X Install Data.

Locate InstallESD.dmg disk image file — this is the file you need to reinstall Lion OS X. The same steps are valid for Mountain Lion and Mavericks.

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How to downgrade a Mac running later macOS versions

If your Mac runs macOS Sierra 10.12 or macOS High Sierra 10.13, it is possible to revert it to the previous system if you are not satisfied with the experience. You can do it either with Time Machine or by creating a bootable USB or external drive.
Instruction to downgrade from macOS Sierra

Instruction to downgrade from macOS High Sierra

Instruction to downgrade from macOS Mojave

Instruction to downgrade from macOS Catalina

Before you do it, the best advice is to back your Mac up so your most important files stay intact. In addition to that, it makes sense to clean up your Mac from old system junk files and application leftovers. The easiest way to do it is to run CleanMyMac X on your machine (download it for free here).

Visit your local Apple Store to download older OS X version

If none of the options to get older OS X worked, pay a visit to nearest local Apple Store. They should have image installations going back to OS Leopard and earlier. You can also ask their assistance to create a bootable USB drive with the installation file. So here you are. We hope this article has helped you to download an old version of Mac OS X. Below are a few more links you may find interesting.

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